If the leadership of certain departments is usurped by capitalist roaders, they will strengthen and extend bourgeois rights in the relations between people, subject workers to “control, check, and repression,” turn the socialist relations between people into capitalist mercenary relations, and enforce the bourgeois dictatorship.
This situation is particularly obvious in the Soviet Union of today.
In Soviet state-owned enterprises, the working class has become human material
to exact surplus value. Managers can use any “reason” to lay off workers, who have only the “obligation” to “abide by labor discipline and internal rules,” to work submissively. On Soviet collective farms, the directors lord it over the peasants and “do whatever they wish.” As they themselves have admitted, they are “playing the role of a whip” toward the peasants.
Look, the relations between a handful of capitalist roaders within the Soviet Party and the broad masses of workers and peasants have become relations between the employer and the employed, the ruler and the ruled.
When exposing the relations between workers and capitalists in capitalist society, Marx and Engels pointed out: the workers “are not only the slaves of the bourgeoisie and the bourgeois state, but are also enslaved every day and every hour by machines and the foremen, in the first place by the factory owners themselves.” (Communist Manifesto)
Another feature of the bourgeoisie within the Party is its vigorous effort to strengthen and extend bourgeois rights in the field of distribution and possess the labor of others without compensation.
Chairman Mao says: “Our country at present practices a commodity system, the wage system is unequal too, as in the 8-grade wage scale, and so forth. These can only be restricted under the dictatorship of the proletariat.”
In the period of socialism, there is no alternative to practicing the principle “from each according to his best, to each according to his work.” This means distribution according to the different amounts of labor each laborer provides to society.
But as Marx pointed out, “Here the right of equality is in principle still a bourgeois right.” (Critique of the Gotha Program).
In fact, many phenomena of inequality still exist in the field of distribution. Whether such inequalities should be gradually restricted and ultimately eliminated under the dictatorship of the proletariat or strengthened and extended at will is an important mark of distinction between Marxism and revisionism.
Touching on the birth of
classes, Engels pointed out: “With the appearance of disparities in distribution, class differences also appear. Society is divided into the privileged and the under-privileged, the exploiter and the exploited, the ruler and the ruled.” (Anti-Duhring).
To extend bourgeois rights in distribution actually smacks of allowing a section of people to possess the labor of another section of people without compensation, which means extending class differences.
Today in the Soviet Union, hasn’t a handful of the bourgeois privileged stratum and spiritual aristocracy headed by Brezhnev formed and developed into an exploiting class in the course of restoring capitalism? By exploiting the position and authority they have usurped, through such means as raising wages, bonuses and payments for manuscripts, and by way of all sorts of privileges, corruption, theft and profiteering, they expropriate the fruits of labor of the workers and peasants in a big way.
On the other hand, the masses of workers and peasants are entirely placed in the position of the enslaved and the exploited and are increasingly stricken with poverty. The historical lesson of capitalist restoration in the Soviet Union fully shows how important it is for a socialist state, while consolidating the proletarian dictatorship and public ownership of the means of production, to strive to restrict bourgeois rights in the field of distribution in order to prevent the Party and state from changing color.
That was why Marx, in summing up the experience of the Paris Commune, especially praised the measures taken by the heroes of the Commune: “All public functionaries from the top down, beginning with members of the Commune Committee, should draw a salary equivalent to the wages of the worker. All privileges enjoyed by senior state officials and their office expenses should disappear with the disappearance of these officials.” (The Civil War in France)
The reason why renegades from Marxism like Deng Xiaoping resent and fear the criticism and restriction of bourgeois rights is that bourgeois rights are the very lifeblood of the bourgeoisie inside the Party and that to restrict bourgeois rights is to make revolution against them.
– Chuang Lan, “Capitalist-Roaders Are Representatives Of The Capitalist Relations of Production” (1970′s).